Thursday, October 31, 2013

Aquatic ecosystem-Ponds

The aquatic ecosystem deals with water bodies. The major types of organisms found in aquatic environments are determined by the water's salinity.
Based on the salinity of water water bodies are classified into:
  1. Fresh water bodies (Ex: Ponds, streams, lakes and rivers)
  2. Salt water bodies (Ex: Oceans, Seas, Estuaries)
Pond is a freshwater aquatic ecosystem where water is stagnant. It receives enough water during rainy season. It contains several types of algae, aquatic plants, insects, fish and birds.
  1.  Pond is only seasonal
  2. It is a stagnant freshwater body
  3. Ponds get polluted easily due to limited amount of water
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF POND ECOSYSTEM
Abiotic components
Ex:  Temperature, light, water, organic and inorganic components
Biotic components
  1. Producers: They are green photosynthetic organisms and are of two types. phytoplanktons are microscopic aquatic plants that freely float on the surface of water. Ex: Algae, small floating plants like volvox, pandorina, anabena and cosmarium. Microphytes are large floating plants and submerged plants. Ex: Hydrilla, Jussiaea, wolfina and demna.
  2. Consumers: Primary consumers are microscopic animals that freely float on the surface of water. They are called zooplanktons and they feed on phytoplanktons. Ex: Protozoa, very small fish, ciliates, flagellates and protozoans.Secondary consumers feed on zooplanktons. Ex: Insects like water beetles and small fish. Tertiary consumers feed on small fish. Ex: Large fish
  3. Decomposers: They decompose the dead plant and animal matter thereby releasing the nutrients to be reused by green plants. Ex: Fungi, Bacteria and flagellates.

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